Open Technology Solutions for K-12 Education
EDUCATION CONNECTION Open Technology Solutions Fair
May 9, 2007
Linux Technology Center, IBM
Copyright (C) 2006, David Shields.
- Standards Matter
- Open Standards / Open Architecture: Hardware
- Open Standards / Open Architecture: Software
- What is Open Source?
- Examples of Open Source Projects
- Open Source Strategy
- Market Dynamics
- Benefits of Open Source
- Challenges of Open Source
- Key Customer IT Questions and Open Source
- Integrating Open Source into your IT Strategy
- Open Content
- Open Data Formats
- COSN K-12 Open Technologies Study #1: Saugus Union School District
- COSN K-12 Open Technologies Study #2: Indiana Desktop Linux
- Technology 2.0
- Promoting Open Technology in Education: One ? per ?
- Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
- Appendix A: Open Technology and Education Around the World
- Appendix B: Open Technology in Higher Education
- Explain key concepts of Open Technology: standards, architecture, source, data formats, collaboration.
- Show how they can be applied to education looking at some case studies.
- Suggest how best to deploy, next steps.
Open Technology includes …
- Shared specification or shared convention
- Improves information sharing by simplifying integration of different technologies (interoperability)
- Allows multiple implementations of the same technology
- Open up the system design (hardware or software)
- Standards-based development using open interfaces and specifications.
- Allows innovation on top of common specifications.
- Freely available source code for program application, utility or library.
- Promote innovation by leveraging community development
- Accelerate open standards creation and adoption
- Internet has enabled worldwide distribution of content at minimal or no cost.
- Programs, in source or binary form, are an important kind of open data.
- Open data and data formats
- Sharing information
- Building communities
- Social networks, part of “Web 2.0”
Disasters / Humanitarian Assistance:
- The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904
- Southeast Asia Tsunami 2004: Sahana: Free and Open Source Disaster Management
- “No innovation matters more than that which saves lives.”
- George Washington to Constitutional Convention, 1787: “Let us raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair.”
- George Washington in recently-discovered letter from 1787: “The happiness of this Country depend much on the deliberations of the federal Convention which is now sitting. It, however, can only lay the foundation — the community at large must raise the edifice.”
In Education: No Child Left Behind
In Commerce: Standards Competition
- VHS / Beta Tape Format
- Blu-ray / HD DVD disk format – ongoing
- OpenDocument and
Office Open XML formats – ongoing.
Desktop/server computer components today:
- Power Supply
- Hard Disk Drive
- CD/DVD Disk Drive
- Graphics card
- Network card
- Components are interchangeable; they can be substituted.
- Components are independent; you can change one without affecting the others.
- Not a new concept; see for example Eli Whitney (Yale ’92)
and Samuel Colt
- More choice to end-user.
- Most users just need components that are “good enough.”
- Market dynamics change:
- Components commoditized, need high-volume to make money
- Innovation becomes more important to the component makers
Key concepts: standard interfaces, components, commoditization, “good enough”
Cost of each of above has fallen dramatically:
- For example, disk storage from 1 megabyte/$1000 in 1983 to 3 gigabytes/$1 today, factor of 3 million improvement.
- Same componentization phenomenon in software going on now.
Background / history:
1981: IBM releases Personal Computer
- Publishes interfaces to hardware.
- These interfaces become instant standard.
- Enables others to develop hardware.
- Puts Moore’s law to work in new mass market.
- Defines how to develop (DOS) and distribute (floppy disk) software for this new kind of computer.
- Definition of hardware interfaces as formal standards: “plug compatible interface”
- Enables “cloning” of hardware, such as portable computer from Compaq, the ancestor of today’s notebook/laptop.
- In 1984 Michael Dell starts selling plug-compatible PC’s from stock off-the-shelf components.
- PC “microcomputer” evolves into workstation that replaces minicomputer.
- Rise of commercial, “shrinkwrap” software. Microsoft goes from DOS to Vista.
Open architectures from IBM:
A standard is “open” if:
- Open to input from the community of interested entities;
- Available fairly, to any entity that wishes to implement or use them;
- Neutral and unbiased – giving no one entity or vendor an unfair advantage over others in the creation or implementation of the standard.
- Develops and maintains open internet standards
- Started in 1969, almost 5000 reports and documents to date
- The World Wide Web (W3) is an application built on the internet.
- “W3C develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential.”
- “In order for the Web to reach its full potential, the most fundamental Web technologies must be compatible with one another and allow any hardware and software used to access the Web to work together. W3C refers to this goal as Web interoperability. By publishing open (non-proprietary) standards for Web languages and protocols, W3C seeks to avoid market fragmentation and thus Web fragmentation.”
- Over ninety standards published since 1994.
The initial work on W3 began in 1989 at CERN. CERN released the base code for W3 into the public domain in 1993. See Ten Years Public Domain for the Original Web Software, which includes the following quotation from Tim Berners-Lee:
CERN’s decision to make the Web foundations and protocols available on a royalty free basis, and without additional impediments, was crucial to the Web’s existence. Without this commitment, the enormous individual and corporate investment in Web technology simply would never have happened, and we wouldn’t have the Web today.”
http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/html40.html, a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL) and
- Standard for domain name
- Use characters A-Z, 0-9 and hyphen (-):
- So “w3.org” and “W3.ORG” the same, “W$3.org” not allowed
- Standard for domain name
@separates recipient name from recipient’s site
doe.orgis recipient’s site
and so it goes …
Software is a special kind of writing that directs the operation of the various hardware components of a computer. Open Source is a kind of software.
- You are almost certainly using some of it every time you use a computer or use the internet.
- Yahoo runs much of its business using Open Source Software, as does Google. (Google uses 3 million processors
running Linux, an open source operating system).
- Firefox — a browser you can use to access Yahoo, Google, and all the other web sites — is a good example of Open
Since software is a form of writing, it is protected by copyright. The author, or copyright owner, sets the license terms. Software is “Open Source” if its license meets the conditions of the Open Source Definition.
There are many Open Source licenses though only a few are widely used.
Here are some key differences between commercial and open source code licenses:
|Access to source code?||Yes||No|
|Can make copies?||Yes||No|
|Can make changes?||Yes||No|
|Can distribute copies and/or changes?||Yes||No|
Open Source code is usually developed using collaborative community-based approach in which all work is done in full public view.
It is distributed in several ways, including: as individual programs (also called “packages”); or as a set of related programs, called a “suite”; as a collection that constitutes a complete operating environment for a computer, called a “distribution.”
It is usually made available as a downloadable file from the web, or on a CD, or on a DVD.
- Open-source implementation of operating system kernel, work began in 1991.
- Supports many Unix-related standards such as the IEEE POSIX standards.
- Many kernel developers are corporate employees, using shared R & D model to enable Linux for the enterprise.
- Linux growing several times faster in server market than total market and faster than Windows server.
- Has become standard platform used by open source developers
- Available on wide range of architectures, from supercomputers to cell phones, and also the $80 Linksys NSLU2
- Customers asking for Linux led to greater IBM involvement to provide more options to customers by making Linux more enterprise-ready.
- Most widely used HTTP Web server (for over a decade), see Netcraft Apr ’07.
- Community initiated apache.org, example of best practices in open source development and governance
- Apache also sponsors many other projects, including XML and Web Services, databases, and so forth.
- IBM’s first serious engagement in Open Source was replacing the proprietary Notes Domino Web Server with Apache’s server in mid-1998.
- Browser and client technology.
- Widely used. One of first open-source applications to achieve wide use on the desktop.
- The term “open source” was created in early 1998 when Netscape decided to release the source code for the Netscape browser as a competitive response to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
- Mozilla evolved into today’s Firefox browser, Thunderbird e-mail client.
Open Source Strategy
Support rapid adoption of open standards by providing easy access to high quality open source implementation of open standards in order to speed industry adoption. Encourage open source implementations of standards and so use open source to support business and strategic goals.
Use open source as business tool by keeping platform open and to take advantage of new business opportunities. This encourages choice and flexibility in meeting customers’ needs.
Enhance mind share and work with open source projects, build relationships with the community of developers. Become strategic player, both as contributor and consumer of technology.
IBM contributions over last 8 years
- More than 1000 IBM developers involved in OSS projects.
- IBM leads over 80 projects.
- IBM contributes to over 150 projects.
Very mature open source packages available for infrastructure and tooling, especially in the application and web server space.
Most standards have open-source implementations:
- Open source used to create initial “reference” implementation.
- If good enough this can become the most widely-used, standard implementation.
- These implementations become components.
- Just as with hardware, some components become commodities.
Programming applications increasingly based on component creation and integration: distinguish standards-supporting versus value-add components.
- Open source “stack” available from the smallest embedded computers to supercomputers, from system startup to enterprise applications.
- Low barrier to entry allows this this stack to be used as a platform for innovation:
- Encourage like-minded companies within an industry to collaborate on development of common business functionality.
- Share common development method and open standards.
- Utilize a common value-based approach supported with partner or peer.
- Products and solutions moving toward hybrid mix of open source and commercial components.
- Commercial vendors: create software that is innovative, meant to differentiate the vendor and deliver value to the clent.
- Can use non-differentiating open source components that implement and support standards.
- Open Source projects/vendors create software through open, collaborative communities driving evolution of standards and innovation.
- Choice no longer just build or buy, can now integrate and even share components.
- Opportunity to develop and enhance service business.
Industry evolving. What is the right mix?
- Choice and Flexibility
- Hardware portability – available on multiple platforms
- Software flexibility
- Modularity and extensibility – can customize and adapt
- Range of support options
- Low acquisition cost, no recurring license fees
- Easy access to software
- Light weight, easy to use
- Rapid prototyping lets you try things out with small investment.
- One model now in wider user is to develop using open source, deploy using commercial software.
- Peer review of source code enhances quality.
- Broad community testing helps discover bugs.
- Fast cycle time of releases and fixes encourages wider use.
- Adoption encourages others to join project.
- Many choices
- With other open source software
- With commercial software
- Commercial developers may have little experience.
- New developers probably have some experience as open source.
- Availability of applications
- Size of user community; strength of developer community
- Enterprise requirements: function, scalability
- Community and industry support.
- Sustainability — will it be available five years from now?
- Too many choices.
How can IT help our business succeed?
- Solve our problems today
- Grow in the future
- Integrate across and outside the company
- Respond quickly to opportunities and threats
How can we improve our IT infrastructure?
- Better – more reliable, more secure
- Faster – better price / performance
- Lower cost – more efficient, lower TCO
- More flexible – easier to integrate and adapt to new opportunities
Should we use Open Source Software?
- When / Where / How /
- Open Source / Commercial / Mixture
- Who from / Who supports / Who integrates
- How much will it cost / TCO / ROI ?
- How to acquire or learn needed skills?
Insist on Open Standards – increases flexibility and responsiveness
Evaluate Open Source and Commercial software options – be pragmatic.
- Most customers are using a mix of open source and commercial source..
- The open source may be found embedded within commercial source.
- Don’t build a separate strategy – interoperability / migration considerations are important.
- Balance up-front costs against recurring costs.
Evaluate Community and its maturity before committing to Open Source:
- Open, robust communities and broad industry support are important.
- Sustainable business models are also important.
- Look for healthy ecosystem of vendors, service suppliers, and business partners.
Establish policies for dealing with open source software:
- Provide education.
- Understand licensing issues.
- Need a team: business, technical, legal.
- Be pragmatic – “Crawl, walk, run.”
- Run proof of concept or pilot to test viability.
- Make decisions based on both business and technical factors.
It’s not just about sharing code but all forms of data/content. For example,
- Web 1.0 began as effort by physics research lab CERN to share information about research.
- Wikipedia is an example of open content.
- lanl.arXiv.org, 400,000+ papers in physics, match, etc. Most written using open
source programs Tex/LaTex.
- Web 2.0 — work in progress.
Just as with open source code need to address licensing issues. See for example Creative Commons
New ways of distributing, creating and sharing content:
- Blog – WordPress. See The Wayward Word Press
- Wiki – MoinMoin, Mediawiki
(used by Wikipedia).
- Content Management System (CMS). Drupal, Joomla.
Business models based on user-supplied content, social networking, building communities on the web:
- User reviews: Amazon, Newegg, eBay
- Blogs – WordPress
- Second Life
Part of open technology is the use of open data formats, the web being a prime example. Data formats are important in many other areas; in particular in the need for institutions that archive and maintain public records that go back decades — and in some cases centuries — and which need to be preserved in a public form indefinitely.
For example imagine if Lincoln had used Powerpoint: The Gettysburg Powerpoint Presentation.
By the way, I prefer the open format HTML. It is good enough for me and no one need download or buy any software to read it: they can just use their browser.
In an environment where a single word processing application is widely used, organizations have largely defaulted to storing their documents in proprietary file formats. A weakness of this approach is that if a user were to employ an application that does not use the same file format, then that user would not be able to efficiently collaborate and exchange data with colleagues.
In situations where different proprietary formats are used, the search, retrieval and re-use of vital information stored in documents can become difficult if not impossible.
Problems only compound when maintaining archival data in a proprietary format, as may need not only to maintain the data but the software used to access that data, and the operating system software on which that software runs, and the hardware that can run that operating system, and associated skills.
Adobe announced in January 2007 that it would submit PDF as an open standard: Adobe and industry standards.
Open Document Format (ODF) is emerging as an open standard
document format to facilitate interoperability and collaboration in the format for document editing, interchange,
storage and retrieval. It is maintained by OASIS and is the
format used by the open source office suite OpenOffice. See ODF Alliance, especially ODF
Libraries / Museums / Governments / Educational Institutions:
- Cultural applications (mention Hermitage, Vatican
Library, HUC work and personal connection) (IBM Research)
- Dspace “DSpace is a groundbreaking digital repository system that captures, stores,
indexes, preserves, and redistributes an organization’s research data.” (MIT, HP)
- Fedora “Fedora open source software gives
organizations a flexible service-oriented architecture for managing and delivering their digital content.” (Mellon Foundation, Cornell)
- Koha Open-source Integrated Library System (ILS) (New Zealand)
- OSS4Lib “Open Source Systems for Libraries” (Started by Yale Medical Library)
- JSTOR “Create and maintain a trusted archive of important scholarly journals.”
(Mellon). See for example Lloyd Homme on
Teaching-Machine Programming (1962)
- ARTStor “Digital Image Library” (Mellon)
- Portico.org “Electronic archiving service” (Mellon)
- Connecticut State Library New York State
Library State Library of Massachusetts
- Windows PCs vs. X Terminals: A Cost Comparison (Use of
Linux thin clients in Willamette University Library.)
- XML in
the UK Government
- GovTalk: Information on policies and standards for e-government (UK)
Profile: 11000 students in 15 K-6 campuses. IT group manages 800 staff accounts, 11K student accounts, authentication and authorization for 50+ programs.
Problem: District was using Novell Netware solution, but worried about continued support for education. Decided for migrate to Linux. This done in 2Q 2004.
Decided to use RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for servers, Fedora for desktops.
Self-taught: Used books, LDP, linuxquestions.org. (Observation: Because open source so prevalent and many mail lists publicly available, web search is a great tool to learn about packages, aka “Support via google.” Note also the “Amazon book metric.”)
Used RHEL Kickstart to automate install and configuration process. Used flash drive with Kickstart program and RHEL
|Service||Old||New (Open Source)||Directory services||Novell Directory Services||OpenLDAP||Windows File and Print||Novell Netware 6.2||Samba|
|Macintosh File and Print||Novell Netware 6.x||Netatalk|
|Web server||Apache or Netware Enterprise||Apache|
|Email server||Novell Groupwise 6.5||Novell Groupwise 6.5 on Linux|
|DNS/DHCP servers||Novell||BIND9 and dhcpd|
|Web proxy server||Novell Border Manager||Squid|
|Backup||Veritas Backup exec||Bacula|
|1||DHCP, router, NAT, web proxy|
|2||Email, library automation, web server, local DNS|
|3||File/print, directory services, backup|
Used The Open CD (Win ports of 30+ packages) to demo Open Source to faculty
Rollout started with non-essential edge servers, worked way to core, testing and developing expertise on the way. Migrated 14 school sites and 42 servers over six weeks during summer. Now almost all Linux, with a few Windows servers running legacy database apps that are not yet Linux ready.
Staff receptive, especially since much of migration transparent (Windows users still saw Windows servers, as did Mac users and Mac servers). Easy migration to use Open Office (OO), and configured OO to save documents by default in MS Word format (hope to see standards-based format supported by both OO and MS Office).
- Maintenance: use RedHat network for automated updates and patches. Use cron scripts to update student desktops; use VNC to access desktops.
- Expansion: working with vendors to encourage and obtain Linux versions
- Virtualization: Moving from several servers to blade servers, plan to use Xen to run virtual machines to bettter manage server resources.
- Linux on student desktop: Plan gradually migration, using Linux to extend shelf life of older computers. Plan to set up complete lab using Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP).
- Building “Open District:” Every teacher given OpenCD; new machines configured to use Open Office suite. Have “Teacher
Community” for content development using ELGG Open Source social networking platform — “MySpace for Teachers.” (ELGG started in March 2004)
- Investigating Moodle, but proceeding slowly. “Frustrated by lack of standards.”
- Solving 30 per cent of tech support issues within one day. “Thrilled with dramatic increase in performance, reliability and fault tolerance.”
- Customization: Modfied perl scripts for editing Samba accounts on the LDAP directory. Extended to exchange information with some of their web apps.
- Time savings: Servers easier to manage. Single server management and configuration tool.
- Cost savings: $54K/year for Novell licensing costs, estimate $50-$200/year per desktop by using OO and other Open Source software on desktop workstations.
- Community: Spirit of “Open Community” beginning to catch on. More sharing of lesson plans, new uses such as using Audacity (from the OpenCD) to record podcasts of class review material.
- Happy with results, felt research, planning and early experimentation important.
- So happy that “would not be so cautious next time” but would try newest beta releases sooner.
- Every time they looked for an open source alternative they found one.
Indiana sponsors one of the most extensive statewide programs to provide class sets of low-cost student workstations using Linux on the desktop.
The Indiana Affordable Classroom Computers for Every Secondary Student (InACCESS) program is
- State-funded via grants
- Has placed more than 22,000 workstations in 24 high schools across Indiana.
- Classrooms in a single subject area (usually language arts) are
fully equipped with non-mobile workstations.
- The workstations are used for online research, frequent writing, and collaboration.
Indiana has just over one million students in public schools, with 300,000 high school students.
The majority of schools have a student-to-computer ratio of between 5:1 and 8:1. About half the computers are in a lab environment.
Motivation — status in 2001:
- Computing resources were either overbooked or not reaching students.
- Students were spending an average of only 35 minutes per week using computers.
- Often the few classroom computers were used with early finishers and occasionally for special projects.
- Lab computers heavily used, most classes used just once/week
- Considered individual laptops but rejected on basis of cost and security issues.
- Decided to focus on 1-1 (one computer for each student) in language arts.
- Create grant program so schools could purchase low-cost computers using open-source.
- Provide up to $190K/grant to equip five classrooms with 30 stations in each. One quarter of budget for professional development.
- Goal to keep software costs to $5/year.
- Initial cost $400-$600 including desktop running on commodity hardware.
- Using Gnome, KDE, Star Office, Moodle, GIMP, IHMC CMAP (CMS), Crossover Linux (to run Win apps).
- Provide choice of Linux distros: Novell, Linspire, RedHat, Ubuntu. State provides images to format hard drives.
- Minimal ongoing investment.
- Schools given freedom to come up with their own plan.
- Pilots for two years starting in 2003. Program going strong today.
InACCESS Case Study Highlights
|Subjects||Eng||Eng||Eng (2) Sci(2)|
|Distribution||SUSE||SUSE||SUSE + Edubuntu|
Key: MI, Michigan City; CH, Connersville HS; RC, Rush County; ACc Alexandria Community; MC, Monroe County (one of few all-MS sites in program).
- Summer training for teachers, starting with StarOffice and Moodle to prepare worksheets and quizzes. “Shallow end of the pool.” (CH)
- InAccess gives extra points to applicants that partner with established districts. Rush did this and reported that this made process much easier. (RC)
- State did allow funds to be used for a few applications such as Criterion that were known to be of value in one-to-one context.
- Teachers were using MS Office, students MS Works, which caused compatibility problems. Moved to StarOffice for all.
- Relying on uniform images, remote installs and refresh at start of each school year.
- Remote installation makes it easier to update and maintain large number of machines.
- Server-based approach (LTSP,Ardence) eliminates need for hard drives in some workstations.
Technology / Software:
- Schools use StarOffice (SO), an enhanced version of Open Office (OO) , since Indiana has statewide license for SO.
- Using Ardence server to avoid hard drives, provide Novell Linux
Desktop (NLD) to 150 new machines. (RC)
- Used SuSE, StarOfice (commercial version of Open Office, Crossover (AC) (supports running Windows apps on non-Windows platforms. Used here for Inspiration and Criterion ). (AC)
- Provided summer training in Moodle. Training not needed for StarOffice since it similar to MS Office. (RC)
- In some classes, students start by logging into Moodle they keep daily journal, access assignments. (MI)
- Teachers use Moodle to administer quizzes, provide assignments, chats, journaling. (RC)
- Tried termal server approach, had problems (not detailed), so moved to desktop with CD install (CH)
- Tried pilot one-to-one laptop, found it was too expensive. (AC)
- Required dual Linux/Win98 boot to support one application (testing program). (AC)
- Used Novell SuSE for $10/year when XP available for comparable price; think could have stayed with all-Windows networking. (MC)
- Training requirements have proven to be modest, in part due to similarity of commercial and open-source applications
- Schools adding up to 300 new machines but none have to add additional support staff.
- Plans to expand to social studies, geography and economics classes. (CH)
- So pleased that extended in second year to three new classrooms using school’s own funds, using no hard drives and thin client/LTSP approach. (AC)
- Using money saved to invest in other technologies such as classroom feedback system. (AC)
- Plan to use 90 old desktops that would otherwise be retired as LTSP clients. (AC)
- Seeing more writing since moving to one-to-one. (CH)
- More experienced teachers seem to do better than newer teachers. Guess perhaps they have better classroom mgmt skills and so can keep students focused (MI)
- Linux machines well used, teachers report students writing more (MC)
- Even teachers who are reluctant technology users soon become enthusiastic (MI)
- Estimates students spend half of class time using computers. Students prepare series of wikis. Also using free external wiki hosting; see amlitwiki.wikispaces.com (CH)
- Noted sixth-eighth graders more open to learning new software, as they take it as challenge. Ninth-tenth graders tired of novelty (!) (AC)
- “Don’t be afraid. Problems can be solved.” (MI)
- “Once one teacher gets it, they all want it.” (AC)
- Students more engaged when have good computer access.
Believe that many of the benefits were due to the use of the one-to-one approach.
Success due in part to ease of implementation and the cost savings that resulted by using an open technology
Expect statewide increase in 2007 from 24 to 80 high schools in program.
What we today call “open technology” is the collection of the key technologies that were refined and created during the creation of the web. Common to all is the notion of “openness”:
- Open architecture
- Open standards
- Open formats
- Open protocols
- Open code
- Open discussion
- Open collaboration in full public view
Collectively they comprise Open Technology 1.0, the technology that was used to build the modern Internet and web.
The internet and web themselves have become part of Open Technology.
These technologies are being further refined and extended today as the Open Technology 2.0 that forms the base technology for Web 2.0.
Perhaps the single best demonstration of the power of open technology is a Linux server running on commodity hardware: Open Technology in a Box.
Note that ALL the applications of open technology mentioned in the two Case Studies discussed above involve the use of Linux servers.
What next? How can we be more effective in providing education about open techology and its application in the K-12 space?
- Fragmented market: Almost 15,000 local school
districts serving 47 million public school students.
- Limited resources for capital expenditure and hiring new IT staff, so must work with what is available.
- Enterprises more used to dealing with mixed IT environment and more aware of importance of open standards, schools less so.
Options / Goals: One
- Thin client
- Linux Server
- IT staff member
- Computer Lab
Entry point: One Linux Server Per District (OLSPD), installed and maintained by existing staff in the district.
Why? Provide better education Connecticut Lt. Governor Michael Federle in
Governor brings business view to state Capitol:
He said the lack of business expansion has nothing to do with the state’s tax structure.
“The reason they’re not growing their business here is we don’t have a skilled work force for their position,” he said, adding that the higher taxes will provide more money for education from pre-kindergarten through $50 million in higher education scholarships.
What? See if open technology can help provide better education. Provide more options to IT staff and teachers.
- Open technology was good enough to build the web and is being used in the enterprise. It’s certainly ready for use in education.
- More software becoming available. Might as well dip toes into water now if you have any interest.
- In the school, in the classroom, “inside your firewall.” Need to respect school culture, especially the privacy and security concerns.
- On the web: provide resources, especially case studies. establish more active, vital community.
- School IT staff
- Open technologists
- Regional support organizations such as EducationConnection
- State government
- Business, as business:
- Business, as responsible corporate citizen:
How? Many paths…
- Bring open technology into a school or district to improve IT infrastructure.
- Provide education about open technology to educators. Demonstrate how they might use it.
- Provide education to technologists about the possibilities of applying open technologies in education. Why they should engage, how they can help.
- Try to bring open technologists into schools. Get them engaged.
- Use Linux servers as the key enabling open technology:
- If you’re going to do anything with Linux you need to be able to install and operate a base Linux server. Show it can be done.
- Need just core Linux networking functionality plus a small number of packages.
- Hardware requirements are minimal; this provides more options for aging hardware.
- Engage developers and experts with educators.
- Engage with regional groups and organizations that have existing relationships with multiple districts.
- Provide training to staff in those groups so they provide education in open technology and assist in its deployment to interested schools and districts.
- Track and document deployments to create case studies.
- Work to establish larger and more vital web presence in this area:
- Current work very fragmented;
- Supplement existing web content on this topic;
- Create new publicly-available content.
Community and Open Source/Technology:
- It’s not just the code but the people behind the code;
- It’s just not those people but the community that builds up around the code;
- It’s not just the community but the relationships you can build with community members;
- It’s not just the relationships but the opportunities that can come from those relationships.
The key to all this is building relationships and communities.
Thanks to Randy Metcalfe of OSS Watch, U.K. OSS advisory service, for providing most of the content in this section.
The key open source group in the UK for the k12 space is
SchoolForge.org.uk. (This site includes several case studies.) It serves as both an advocacy group as well as a clearing house for information and case studies for this sector. The American version of the same thing is SchoolForge.net.
Except for the private schools such as Eton and the like, virtually the entire schools sector is government funded. Funding comes from central government direct to schools in some cases, but most school funding is channelled through the Local Education Authority (LEA) which is intimately connected to the local city or county council. BECTA (British
Educational Communications and Technology Agency) sets the policy for IT infrastructure for schools. It also manages some of the large-scale procurement exercises for this sector. For example, a huge amount of money is about to flow into virtual learning environment (VLE) procurement for schools. BECTA writes the invitation to
tender (ITT) and sets the criteria against which vendors’ solutions will be measured. A recent controversy here arose when it became clear that BECTA’s ITT inadvertently excludes many small open source companies. This is because BECTA is obligated to follow central government’s procurement guidelines. These have been developed over decades and are really useful for secure large-scale procurement. Many open source support companies are not able to meet the conditions ( e.g. 5 years of audited accounts and such). Thus we are faced with a gap in the market between the very little companies and the big players.)
Since government is the main actor in the k12 field, it is only natural that Members of Parliament get involved. John Pugh MP introduced an Early Day Motion in Parliament. One of the results was the founding of the Open Schools Alliance.
The other reference is to a newly formed group called the National Open Centre, which focuses on the open source and open standards area Although this is not specifically targeting schools, it may turn its attention that way in the near future.
South Korea: Open Source in South Korea
Two recent projects of interest, Sakai and Kuali. These are joint efforts led by several Research Universities. Both
share the following properties:
- Enterprise-level applications written in Java.
- Use directed development model called “Community Source” with developers drawn from member universities.
- Uses industrial strength development model with all work released as open source.
- use ECL (Education Community License), a BSD-style license, moving to Apache license.
- Key startup funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
- IBM donates e-learning software code and expertise to Sakai: SCORM-compliant code to accelerate open-source movement in Higher Education
- Course management system
- Meant for use at large institutions (thousands of users)
- Hosts regular conferences (six so far, several hundred attendees)
- Achieving wide use, both in the US and other countries
- Core tools:Announcements, Drop Box, Email Archive, Resources, Chat Room, Forums, Threaded Discussion, Message
Center, Message Of The Day, News/RSS, Preferences, Presentation, Profile / Roster, Repository Search, Schedule, Search,
Web Content, WebDAV, Wiki, Site Setup.
- Teaching Tools: Assignments, Grade Boxok, Module Editor, QTI Authoring, QTI Assessment, Section Management,
- Portfolio tools: Forms, Evaluations, Glossary, Matrices, Layouts, Templates, Reports, Wizards.
- Includes The Open Source Portfolio Initiative, a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of non-proprietary, open source electronic portfolio software.
- Sustaining and evolving a comprehensive suite of administrative software that meets the needs of all Carnegie Class institutions
- Newer, with project structure based on Sakai experience
Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007
Why Open Standards Matter
Brandon Elementary transformed by K12LTSP.
New Resources on Open Technologies in K-12 Education
The Roadmap for Open ICT Ecosystems
2007 Nonprofit Software Development Summit
Google’s Docs and Spreadsheets
Linux Terminal Server Project (Wikipedia)
Videotape format War
War of Currents
Linux @ BHSN: Journeys in Linux at an Indiana ACCESS High School
Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education.
Open Technology Resources
Millbury MA Public Schools
National Center for Education Statistics.
Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2005
Technology Use in Public Education.
Working for The Man? Advice to a young programmer.
ODF Viewer FAQ
Biggest Community Wins,
Sakai Times: NACOL Wrapup.
Open Source Paradigm Shift
DoD releases OTD Roadmap.
Back to school with education LiveCDs
Open Technology Development.
Bloomington Linux Users Group – wiki
Metri Report: Technology in Schools, What the Research Says
And Oregon Makes Five for ODF – With a Twist
Orwell High School Case Study.
Indiant INaccess site.
Dr. Chuck’s Web Log: K12 Summit.
Faculty Spotlight: Jean-Claude Bradley.
David A. Wheeler’s Blog
Open Source and Open Standards,
Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!.
EdTech Action Network
EDUCAUSE: Reinventing Technology in K-12 Education to Make a Difference
Major U.S. Cities Using National Standard Fire Hydrants, One Century After the Great Baltimore Fire
Fire Museum of Maryland: The Great Baltimore Fire
The Case for Open Markets in Education
Social Sofware and Learning.
An introduction to open computing, open standards, and open source
IBM: Resources for Open Technology
IBM: Resources for open technology
IBM: The power of the open approach to transform K12 schools.
IOSA.it Open Archaeology
UNDP-APDIP International Open Source Network.
Free/Open Source Software, Open Standards.
JISC: Web 2.0.
Linux Foundation, Linux Standard Base (LSB)
Intel aims low-cost K-12 laptop at emerging markets
A Computer Lab with No Windows, Part I
A Computer Lab with No Windows, Part II
Windows PCs vs. X Terminals: A Cost Comparison (Willamette Library)
MA Technology Leadership Symposium March 2006
The Information Puzzle
Nigerian school kids use Linux.
SchoolTool: Tapping a world of schoolroom innovation
K12OSN — Support list for open source software in schools
The Economic Motivation of Open Source Software: Stakeholder Perspectives
Laptops for all at Iowa High School
Open Source in South Korea
Mandriva puts Linux on USB stick.
Primer on Open Technologies in K-12 Education.
Technology + Online + Industry + Partnerships: CoSN Study Opens Doors to Open Technologies
What Is Web 2.0
Open Source Meme Map
Seeing No Progress, Some Schools Drop Laptops
Critical Thinking About Word and .doc
Global Innovation Outlook – Media and Content
Danish Board of Technology: Open Source
Software in e-governent (2002)
- On Porting SPITBOL to the Raspberry Pi February 10, 2017
- SPITBOL Man page now available February 10, 2017
- Using VirtualBox to Run SPITBOL on OSX February 2, 2017
- FRIBBLE wins two games against expert player February 1, 2017
- FRIBBLE, a SPITBOL program to play word games such as Word With Friends, now available January 30, 2017
- SPITBOL Featured in “This 70-Year-Old Programmer Is Preserving an Ancient Coding Language on GitHub” September 11, 2015
- SPITBOL 360 Now Available July 8, 2015
- SPITBOL 88 Now Available in Binary and Source Form July 8, 2015
- SPITBOL-88 Now Available June 29, 2015
- SPITBOL for OSX is now available June 15, 2015
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- The Wayward Press: Tom Wolfe's Obituary for A. J. Liebling in the New York Herald Tribune, December 1963
- On Porting SPITBOL to the Raspberry Pi
- Ralph Griswold: "I wish I had done it myself. In the long run I always do."
- On being the maintainer, sole developer, and probably the sole active user of the programming language SPITBOL
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